Teaching is a complex job. As an experienced teacher walks out of a classroom their mind subconsciously assesses a 3D mental map the lesson has just created.
A bad lesson:
A bad lesson may lead to a morose consideration of a stubbornly undulating, terrain. The high points of the teacher’s mental topography are the children or groups of children this professional just knows have ‘got it’. The lows are failures of understanding, so painfully apparent to the professional, from all the lesson’s subtle (and less subtle) feedback cues. To tend to the understanding of all 30 children (to mix my metaphors) can often feel like spinning multiple plates.
But I realised a while ago that teachers shouldn’t only create ‘understanding’ – the transient appreciation of the content learned just now. That newly learned content needs to be remembered because ‘if nothing has been stored in long term memory, nothing has been learned’. In the last few years I think my teaching has improved because I have become not just a creator of understanding but an active, conscious curator of those newly formed understandings, freshly and precariously held in the memories of my students.
One of the most useful ways to strengthen memory is through short, low stakes factual tests. I set fixed regular tests, I work with other teachers, helping them introduce testing. Regular pre-planned testing is also a way we can automate our teaching. This can be no bad thing as automation saves time and relieves that plate spinning stress.
However, following any practice unthinkingly, whether regular testing or an Ofsted outstanding lesson formula, is dangerous. Rather than exercising our professional judgement we follow the magic recipe (sorry, another metaphor). There are superb off the peg teaching courses out there, perhaps akin to a magic recipe any teacher could follow and get results. Nonetheless we teachers just can’t switch off. To be successful we must always consciously work at creating and then curating knowledge.
Below I outline some of the methods I use to ‘curate knowledge’.
I think very carefully about the content of each test I write and try to choose the items that will be most useful, pieces of knowledge most likely to trigger whole webs of interconnections in my students’ minds. This means the lines of explanantion I utilised in class are used in the phrasing of the test items to re-trigger the same web of knowledge in my students’ minds. Here is an example of a test I’ve used with my year 7. I wanted them to be in a position to write confidently about the causes of the Reformation in England in three weeks time. This meant teaching a whole range of ideas but then curating them, keeping them alive in the minds of my pupils so they could all be used together at essay time. Therefore I recycled test items. This test recapped old learning on Wolsey and Erasmus and reviewed fresh learning on Luther’s teachings.
|Test 4 – up to Luther:
Name the very corrupt churchman who ran the government of England for Henry VIII until 1530.
Name a famous critic of corruption in the Catholic Church.
|What was an indulgence?
Why did Pope Leo X sell indulgences?
Name the monk who sold indulgences in Germany.
|How did Luther decide that people get to heaven?
What different belief did Catholics have about how you get to heaven?
|Luther said that many beliefs of the Catholic Church were wrong because they weren’t in the bible. Give 5 examples of Catholic beliefs which Luther criticised.
To keep memories alive in the minds of all your 30 students takes more than the weekly test though.
That goal of ‘active curation’ meant I thought hard about what else I could use to warm up my pupils’ memories. In this quiz I took another tack. I hoped that a reminder of the colourful descriptions I had given of key historical characters would trigger those rich interconnected memories I sought. (nb apologoies for the wonky formatting in WordPress!)
Join the character to the correct description:
|Edward IV (of York)
Henry VII (of Lancaster)
Edward V and brother Richard (died 1483)
Empson and Dudley
Elizabeth of York
The ‘pretenders’ Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck
|Became king in 1485, defeating Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth
They led rebellions against Henry VII by suggesting they were Edward IV’s relatives
Married Henry VII. Daughter of Edward IV and mother of Henry VIII.
Became king in 1483. Brother of Edward IV. Probably killed his nephews.
Died 1483 leaving 12 year old son Edward to inherit the throne and brother in charge.
The ‘princes in the tower’. Sons of Edward IV, probably killed by their uncle Richard III.
Established the first printing press in Germany in 1450
Very unpopular officials of Henry VII who made nobles and other people pay the miserly Henry VII lots of money to help him stay powerful. They were executed when Henry VII died.
|Pope Alexander VI
Pope Leo X
Catherine of Aragon
|Eldest son of Henry VII. Died in 1502 aged 15 after marrying Catherine of Aragon.
Sold indulgences around Germany in 1517. A great salesman.
A very clever Catholic who wrote books criticising corruption in the church.
A pope who was famous for ‘debauchery’. He held all night parties and had affairs.
First wife of Henry VIII. A Spanish princess who had a daughter called Mary.
A monk who began to argue in 1517 that the teachings of the Catholic Church were wrong and you get to heaven by ‘faith alone’.
A pope who organised for indulgences to be sold to pay for St Peter’s church in Rome.
Corrupt churchman who ran England for Henry VIII until he failed to get Henry’s divorce in 1530. From poor background but very arrogant. Built Hampton Court Palace.
If we return to the plate spinning metaphor. I deliberately chose items for this quiz that I knew would give another spin to the memory plates in particular children’s minds. Look at the bottom description of Cardinal Wolsey. Some of my class had been taken by a description of his arrogance. I made sure to include that point in my description of him here but that word ‘corrupt’ is also in there on purpose as I hoped to reawaken notions of the word learned previously. I remembered a number in the class nodding vigorously at the mention of Hampton Court Palace. So another shove of the memory plates by adding that too. I phrased these descriptions to latch onto previously taught memory hooks of the sort I’ve outlined.
I was aware that the chronology of events was still an issue so the class worked on putting sets of 5 events in order over a homework and repeated over a series of lessons (see below). I’ve put Gutenberg in the first set to emphasise a chronological point. I wasn’t sure many in the class had really grasped that printing presses were well established by the time of Luther. Many of the other points echo the learning for the basic knowledge tests but the same details are now in the context of testing chronology. While the class thought about chronological order I was simultaneously taking the opportunity to get those memory plates spinning again.
|Henry VII marries Edward IV’s daughter, Elizabeth of York. This unites the rival noble ‘houses’ of Lancaster and York.||Edward IV dies||Henry VII wins the Battle of Bosworth||Richard III becomes king||Gutenberg sets up his first printing press|
|Thetford Priory is closed||Thomas Cromwell is executed||The Dissolution of the Monasteries begins||Henry VIII dies||Henry VIII gets the Act of Supremacy passed by Parliament. This makes him head of the Church of England instead of the Pope.|
|Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses to the door of the church in the German town of Wittenberg (probably)||Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn (who is pregnant with their daughter Elizabeth)||Henry VIII decides he wants to divorce Catherine of Aragon||Henry VIII becomes king||Pope Clement (prisoner of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V)
refuses to grant Henry VIII a divorce
|Pope Leo X commissions Tetzel to sell indulgences around Germany to pay for rebuilding St Peter’s Church||Henry VIII becomes King||Pope Clement refuses to give Henry a divorce||Pope Clement becomes a prisoner of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V whose army have captured Rome||Henry VIII gets the Act of Supremacy passed by Parliament. This makes him head of the Church of England instead of the Pope.|
Once I am happy my class have some confidence with these bite sized chronologies they can begin to practise putting longer strings of events into order that are in a card sort format. I’ll keep adding to this card sort below for the rest of the year. That means whenever this is a starter activity all that old knowledge is reawakened. Note that I can’t resist using the marriage to Anne Boleyn event card to give sneaky fresh spin to the Elizabeth I memory plate…
|Gutenberg invents the printing press in German|
|Edward IV dies leaving his young son, Edward V to be king.|
|Richard III makes himself king, probably murdering Edward V.|
|Henry Tudor beats Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth and becomes Henry VII.|
|Henry VIII becomes king|
|Henry VIII marries Catherine of Aragon|
|Pope Leo X commissions Tetzel to sell indulgences around Germany to pay for the restoration of St Peter’s Basilica in Rome.|
|Luther publicises his 95 theses criticising Catholic beliefs|
|Pope Clement becomes prisoner of Emperor Charles V. He refuses Cardinal Wolsey’s request of a divorce for Henry VIII.|
|Henry marries Anne Boleyn, pregnant with Elizabeth.|
|Parliament passes the Act of Supremacy in 1534 making Henry VIII head of the Church of England instead of the Pope.|
|Dissolution of the Monasteries begins|
The quiz below got a number of outings. It will come out again to prepare the ground for Puritanism and Archbishop Laud. I knew how useful developed notions of these terms would be later and so I curated that knowledge as best I could ready for future use and development.
|Quiz! Which ideas are:
Catholic (C) or Luther’s Protestant ideas (P)
1. Priests are allowed to marry and are encouraged to live like ordinary people.
2. The head of the church is the Pope, who lives in the Vatican City, Rome.
3. The bible SHOULD be translated from Latin into ordinary language.
4. Church services (called Mass) should be in Latin, as should the bible.
5. Nuns or monks should live religious lives in monasteries or abbeys.
6. Churches are plain so as not to distract people from thinking about God for themselves.
7. What is written in the bible should replace traditional practices.
8. Churches are colourful and decorated with lots of gold and painting.
9. You get out of purgatory by doing good works
10. People should pray to the Virgin Mary, pray to saints and keep relics.
11. You get to heaven through faith alone – what you believe – not what you do
Meanwhile I kept going with the standard regular testing which is set as homework learning. There are enormous benefits to building habitual working practices. You might think I had no time to teach the actual material with all that supplementary recap but I only averaged one recap session within each lesson. You do also move faster when your class carry in their heads so much useful and relevant foundational knowledge.
Memory curation starts with careful planning of the knowledge you want children to remember. It involves presentation of that knowledge in ways that make it memorable, consciously creating memory hooks as you teach. Tending memories means planning new tasks that utilise old learning wherever possible. It means an ongoing awareness of the likely memories as well as understanidng of each of 30 class members. What memory plates are spinning in their minds and what actions might be necessary to keep all those different plates spinning?