Definition of a knowledge organiser: Summary of what a student needs to know that must be fitted onto an A4 sheet of paper.
If you google the term ‘knowledge organisers’ you’ll find a mass of examples. They are on sale on the TES resource site – some sheets of A4 print costing up to £7.50. It seems knowledge organisers have taken off. Teachers up and down the country are beavering away to summarise what needs to be known in their subject area.
It is good news that teachers are starting to think more about curriculum. More discussion of the ‘what’ is being taught, how it should be sequenced and how it can be remembered is long overdue. However, I think there is a significant weakness with some of these documents. I looked at lots of knowledge organisers to prepare for training our curriculum leaders and probably the single biggest weakness I saw was a confusion over purpose.
I think there are three very valid purposes for knowledge organisers:
- Curriculum mapping – for the TEACHER
Identifying powerful knowledge, planning to build schemas, identifying transferable knowledge and mapping progression in knowledge.
- For reference – for the PUPIL
In place of a textbook or a form of summary notes for pupils to reference.
- A list of revision items – for the PUPIL (and possibly the parents)
What the teacher has decided ALL pupils need to know as a minimum at the end of the topic.
All three purposes can be valid but when I look at the mass of organisers online I suspect there has often been a lack of clarity about the purpose the knowledge organiser is to serve.
Classic confusions of purpose:
- Confusing a curriculum mapping document with a reference document:
A teacher sits down and teases out what knowledge seems crucial for a topic. As they engage in this crucial thinking they create a dense document full of references that summarises their ideas. So far so good…but a document that summarises a teacher’s thinking is unlikely to be in the best format for a child to use. The child, given this document, sees what looks like a mass of information in tiny text, crammed onto one sheet of A4. They have no real notion of which bits to learn, how to prioritise the importance of all that detail or apply it. This knowledge is self-evident to the teacher but not the child.
- Confusing a knowledge organiser with a textbook:
Teachers who have written textbooks tell me that there is a painstaking editorial process to ensure quality. Despite this there is a cottage industry of teachers writing series of knowledge organisers which amount to their own textbooks. Sometimes this is unavoidable. Some textbooks are poor and some topics aren’t covered in the textbooks available. Perhaps sometimes the desperate and continual begging of teachers that their school should prioritise the purchase of textbooks falls on deaf ears and teachers have no choice but to spend every evening creating their own textbooks photocopied on A4 paper…
…but perhaps we all sometimes need to remind ourselves that there is no virtue in reinventing the wheel.
- Confusing a textbook with summary notes:
The information included on an A4 sheet of paper necessarily lacks the explanatory context contained in a textbook or detailed notes. If such summaries are used in place of a textbook or detailed notes the student will lack the explanation they need to make sense of the detail.
- Confusing a reference document or notes with a list of revision items for a test
If we want all pupils to acquire mastery of some basics we can list these basic facts we have identified as threshold knowledge in a knowledge organiser. We can then check that the whole class know these facts using a test. The test requires the act of recall which also strengthens the memory of these details in our pupils’ minds.
Often, however, pupils are given reference documents to learn. In this situation the details will be too extensive to be learnt for one test. It is not possible to expect the whole class to know everything listed and so the teacher cannot ensure that all pupils have mastered some identified ‘threshold’ facts. Weaker students will be very poor at recognising what are the most important details they should focus on learning, poor at realising what is likely to come up in a test and the format in which it will be asked. Many will also find a longer reference document contains an overwhelming amount of detail and give up. The chance to build self-efficacy and thus self-esteem has been lost.
If you are developing knowledge organisers to facilitate factual testing then your focus is on Purpose C – creating a list of revision items. Below is a list of criteria I think are worth considering:
- Purpose (to facilitate mastery testing of a list of revision items)
- Exclude knowledge present for the benefit of teacher
- Exclude explanatory detail which should be in notes or a textbook.
- A short topic’s worth (e.g. two weeks teaching at GCSE)
- An amount that all in the class can learn
- Careful of expectations that are too low and if necessary ramp up demand once habit in place.
- Threshold or most ‘powerful’ knowledge
- Which knowledge is necessary for the topic?
- Which knowledge is ‘collectively sufficient’ for the topic?
- Which knowledge will allow future learning of subsequent topics?
- Which knowledge will best prompt retrieval of chunks of explanatory detail?
- CUT any extraneous detail (even if it looks pretty)
- Include relevant definitions, brief lists of factors/reasons arguments, quotes, diagrams and summaries etc.
- Check accuracy (especially when adapting internet finds)
- Necessary prior knowledge
- Does knowledge included in the organiser presume grasp of other material unlikely to yet be mastered?
- Concise wording
- Is knowledge phrased in the way you wish it to be learned?
Happy knowledge organising!